Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian HistoryMain MenuGet to Know the SiteGuided TourShow Me HowA click-by-click guide to using this siteModulesRead the seventeen spatial stories that make up Bodies and Structures 2.0Tag MapExplore conceptsComplete Grid VisualizationDiscover connectionsGeotagged MapFind materials by geographic locationLensesCreate your own visualizationsWhat We LearnedLearn how multivocal spatial history changed how we approach our researchAboutFind information about contributors and advisory board members, citing this site, image permissions and licensing, and site documentationTroubleshootingA guide to known issuesAcknowledgmentsThank youDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fThis project was made possible in part by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Air defense poster
12020-04-30T18:05:52-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f352One of numerous civil defense poster issued by the Japanese government during WWIIplain2020-09-15T14:22:00-04:001938National Archives of Japan, Digital Collection.David FedmanDF-0016Kandra Polatis4decfc04157f6073c75cc53dcab9d25e87c02133
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1media/DF-0027.jpg2020-04-30T18:05:22-04:00Escaping the Red Winds8Ishikawa's account of his escape from the fires.image_header2021-06-09T11:35:29-04:0035.67268, 139.78661Sumida River03/09/1945David FedmanIshikawa, Kōyō
Movement is everywhere in his account. While most had little recourse but to escape on foot, those with official duties often had access to cars and motorcycles that delivered them into, but seldom out of, the flames. Noteworthy, too, is the persistent interest among survivors in gaining access to the tramway and subway system on the Western side of the city. The ultimate goal for those residents lucky enough to escape were the trains departing from Shinjuku station bound for outlying prefectures—the last best hope for escape into rural areas so far unmolested by American B-29s.
If Ishikawa’s entry graphically conveys the social chaos on the ground—what American war planners had called “social dislocation”—it also offers glimpses of coordination, cohesion, and resilience. At nearly every turn, Ishikawa encountered reminders of the fact that air raids had long been a lived reality for Tokyoites. That he followed strict air raid procedures, encountered wardens shouting through megaphones, and discovered bodies that had perished in the midst of carrying out their fire-fighting duties reveals the extent to which air raid procedures had been drilled into the rhythms and routines of everyday life (Johnson 2017; Weisenfeld 2014).
But whatever their preparation, few could have imagined the intensity of the “red winds” (akakaze) that swept across the city. To traverse the Sumida River was to cross the River Styx into the depths of hell. Like so many other survivor accounts, Ishikawa’s entry is littered with apocalyptic references and infernal language—demonic planes above, perdition below. Of particular interest to Ishikawa, as so many other survivors, are the thermodynamics of this inferno. While he may have been struck by the “countless futons and other belongings” that were “turned into balls of flames and swept along” Tokyo’s streets, this was precisely as American engineers and material scientists at Dugway had predicted. Their experimental incineration of futon, drawers, and other household items—in residences described as “workers quarters”—underscores the fact that, official rhetoric to the contrary, American planners were targeting homes.