Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian HistoryMain MenuGet to Know the SiteGuided TourShow Me HowA click-by-click guide to using this siteModulesRead the seventeen spatial stories that make up Bodies and Structures 2.0Tag MapExplore conceptsComplete Grid VisualizationDiscover connectionsGeotagged MapFind materials by geographic locationLensesCreate your own visualizationsWhat We LearnedLearn how multivocal spatial history changed how we approach our researchAboutFind information about contributors and advisory board members, citing this site, image permissions and licensing, and site documentationTroubleshootingA guide to known issuesAcknowledgmentsThank youDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fThis project was made possible in part by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Airline Route Map between Japan, Manchukuo, and China
12019-11-18T17:18:28-05:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f353"Nichi-Man-Shi kōkū renraku zu," Mankō, No. 42, July 1937. Advertisement. National Diet Library, Tokyo.plain2020-09-13T15:07:30-04:0043.88677, 125.3246Manchukuo, Korea, Japan1937-07National Diet Library, Digital Collection, http://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/1583244.1937-07Digital image, National Diet Library, Tokyo.Copyright undetermined (http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/UND/1.0/).Sakura ChristmasManchuria Aviation Company.SMC-0006Kandra Polatis4decfc04157f6073c75cc53dcab9d25e87c02133
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12019-11-18T17:18:26-05:00Lines in the Air28Manchuria Aviation Company; Republican China; Manchukuoplain2021-09-28T10:30:24-04:00Inner Mongolia43.5000, 114.750007/1937Sakura ChristmasManchuria Aviation Company
The Manchuria Aviation Company sought to become the predominant presence over Inner Mongolia in the 1930s and 40s. The “eye in the sky” had initially developed as a technology of rule after the Great War. As Priya Satia argues, Britain had designed this system of policing, known as “air control” and implemented it in Iraq (Satia 2006). There, cultural ideas of restive nomads and shifting sands served to justify bombing the region into submission.
Assumptions regarding a similar geography lay at the heart of Japan’s drive to construct an aerial network in Manchukuo and extend it across Inner Mongolia, beyond the boundaries of its territorial regime. The Japanese airports that sprung up on the steppe would support an infrastructure that would challenge China’s sovereignty over the region.
To Japanese occupiers, the Eurasian continent necessitated this new mode of vision from the cockpit of an airplane. As Shellen Wu shows in her module, the northern borderlands emerged as a contested site between Imperial Japan, Republican and Communist China, and the Soviet Union, after the breakdown of the Qing empire. On the ground, Mongol, Tungusic, and Muslim minorities negotiated these rivalries as they sought to stake out autonomy for their own communities. After the Invasion of Manchuria, the incoming Japanese administration struggled to manage what they saw as this immense area, sparsely populated with indigenes, settlers, and the people in between.