Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian HistoryMain MenuGet to Know the SiteGuided TourShow Me HowA click-by-click guide to using this siteModulesRead the seventeen spatial stories that make up Bodies and Structures 2.0Tag MapExplore conceptsComplete Grid VisualizationDiscover connectionsGeotagged MapFind materials by geographic locationLensesCreate your own visualizationsWhat We LearnedLearn how multivocal spatial history changed how we approach our researchAboutFind information about contributors and advisory board members, citing this site, image permissions and licensing, and site documentationTroubleshootingA guide to known issuesAcknowledgmentsThank youDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fThis project was made possible in part by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Flight Commemorating the Record Contact between Asia and Europe
12019-11-18T17:18:28-05:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f352Yamaji Shingo, "Hōmon kaku kuni no hikōki kigō." 1937. Postcard. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.plain2020-09-09T15:29:18-04:00Japan, Italy, Germany, France, Great Britain1937Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Digital Collection, https://collections.mfa.org/objects/400085/.1937Digital image, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Public domain.Sakura ChristmasManchuria Aviation Company; Lufthansa.SMC-0013Kandra Polatis4decfc04157f6073c75cc53dcab9d25e87c02133
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12019-11-18T17:18:26-05:00Building the Axis Alliance across Eurasia7Manchuria Aviation Company; Lufthansa; transcontinental route; Manchukuoplain2021-09-28T10:35:31-04:001935-1940Sakura ChristmasLufthansaEurasian Aviation Company
Though primarily for the purposes of surveillance, the airports in Inner Mongolia would also support a new transcontinental route from Tokyo to Berlin. By 1935, the reach of Lufthansa and its local carrier, the Eurasian Aviation Company, had alarmed officers of the Kwantung Army to the point that they wanted to replace China with Manchukuo as Germany’s primary partner on the continent. Because Britain ran the routes through India and the Soviet Union controlled the way through Siberia, this left only the treacherous option, seven thousand meters over the Pamir Mountains from Xinjiang to Afghanistan.
The resulting contract between the Manchuria Aviation Company and Lufthansa in December 1936 presaged the Axis Alliance of 1940. The agreement outlined an East-West route from Tokyo, Xinjing, Anxi, Kabul, Baghdad, Rhodes, to Berlin. Nowhere did these settlements mention any consent from the Republican government over the use of airspace, but the Manchuria Aviation Company seemed aware that it was encroaching upon Chinese territory.