Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian HistoryMain MenuGet to Know the SiteGuided TourShow Me HowA click-by-click guide to using this siteModulesRead the seventeen spatial stories that make up Bodies and Structures 2.0Tag MapExplore conceptsComplete Grid VisualizationDiscover connectionsGeotagged MapFind materials by geographic locationLensesCreate your own visualizationsWhat We LearnedLearn how multivocal spatial history changed how we approach our researchAboutFind information about contributors and advisory board members, citing this site, image permissions and licensing, and site documentationTroubleshootingA guide to known issuesAcknowledgmentsThank youDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fThis project was made possible in part by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
12020-04-30T18:06:02-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f352Photograph.plain2020-09-16T00:02:38-04:00William Smith Clark Papers (RG 3/1-1867). Special Collections and University Archives, W.E.B. Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts Amherst.Shellen X. WuSXW-0018Kandra Polatis4decfc04157f6073c75cc53dcab9d25e87c02133
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12020-04-30T18:05:48-04:00Imperial Pathways of Knowledge14Empire as Pathwayplain2021-06-09T14:04:00-04:0043.08000, 141.33980Hokkaidō46.46918, 121.24832Xing'an1915Shellen X. WuNitobe InazoTohoku Imperial University
Through translations beginning in the late nineteenth century, China adopted a number of neologisms coined in Japan, including 科學 kexue, the term for science. In the post-Meiji period, Japanese students studied in US and Europe and brought back to the colonization of the northern island of Hokkaidō the latest agronomic theories. The Japanese agronomist Nitobe Inazo (1862-1933) helped to create a new vocabulary of colonization and empire and coined the term 殖民 shokumin, planting people, for these new efforts to extend the Japanese empire (Dudden 2005, 133-38). The botanical reference drew not only from Nitobe’s educational background but also exposed the undercurrents of the global circulation of concepts about race, territory, and modern statehood.
The expansion of the Japanese Empire created a conduit for ideas about colonization to spread. In Xing An, Chinese officers refused to use the Japanese neologism 殖民 for their efforts. Yet, their plans looked remarkably similar to Japanese state building efforts in Manchuria. To learn more about how nationalists turned to China's own imperial history for precedence, go to the page on the history of tunken.