This content was created by Maren Ehlers. The last update was by Kate McDonald.
Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian HistoryMain MenuGet to Know the SiteGuided TourShow Me HowA click-by-click guide to using this siteModulesRead the seventeen spatial stories that make up Bodies and Structures 2.0Tag MapExplore conceptsComplete Grid VisualizationDiscover connectionsGeotagged MapFind materials by geographic locationLensesCreate your own visualizationsWhat We LearnedLearn how multivocal spatial history changed how we approach our researchAboutFind information about contributors and advisory board members, citing this site, image permissions and licensing, and site documentationTroubleshootingA guide to known issuesAcknowledgmentsThank youDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fThis project was made possible in part by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Photograph of Doi Toshitada
1media/Figure Doi Toshitada_thumb.jpg2020-01-09T18:34:16-05:00Maren Ehlers18502c6775e5db37b999ee7b08c8c075867ca31d359Photograph of Doi Toshitadaplain2021-07-23T20:07:11-04:00Courtesy of the Ōno City Museum of History.Ōno City Museum of History (Ōno-shi hakubutsukan)Used with permission.Maren EhlersME-0008Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f
Ōno's case gives insight into the political motivations of domain rulers for obtaining the smallpox vaccine to strengthen territorial control. By shedding light on vaccinations of marginal kinds of subjects such as mountain villagers and outcastes, Ōno's sources also show how smallpox vaccinations reproduced the imaginative geography and power relations of domain rule. Ōno's lord Toshitada seems to have viewed vaccinations as part of a mercantilist agenda. This meant that he prioritized the fiscal needs of his domain, developed and protected its resources, and tried to minimize imports and maximize export revenue. For this reason, he sought to spread the vaccine primarily within his territory, even as he took advantage of the border-crossing networks of his physicians in obtaining the vaccine. This general mindset was probably shared by many domain rulers, including Fukui's, but Toshitada was particularly involved in promoting vaccinations in his domain.
Toshitada regarded all resources within his territory as a potential source of wealth, and this included the laboring bodies of subjects. In 1842 Toshitada launched a major domain reform with the goal of improving the domain’s budgetary situation. During the Tenpō famine in the 1830s, the domain had lost at least 4,900 lives (out of a population of approximately 29,000), and Toshitada apparently saw vaccinations as a way to boost the economy by increasing the number of working bodies [Fukui kenshi, Tsūshi-hen 4, 496]. One of the earliest domain edicts advertising the benefits of the vaccine began with the statement that in “Holland,” not a single life had been lost to smallpox since the commencement of the vaccinations, and the population was increasing every year. In 1858, the government claimed that in the past seven or eight years the domain population had increased by 2,000 thanks to vaccinations [“Shutō shōrei ni tsuki furegaki,” 1851, in Fukui kenshi, Shiryō-hen 7, 458-459].
For Ōno's lord and his advisers, vaccinations were thus linked to territorial rule. On one hand, domain rule, at least in its mercantilist form, seems to have accelerated the spread of smallpox vaccination among the subjects of Ōno domain, given the strong interest in population growth it inspired among administrators. On the other hand, domain rule also hindered transmission because of the domain territory's lack of coherence. Explore the subject of territorial fragmentation. Or stay on this pathway to explore vaccinations in the main part of Ōno's domain territory, including towards mountain villagers, common townspeople, and outcastes.