Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian HistoryMain MenuGet to Know the SiteGuided TourShow Me HowA click-by-click guide to using this siteModulesRead the seventeen spatial stories that make up Bodies and Structures 2.0Tag MapExplore conceptsComplete Grid VisualizationDiscover connectionsGeotagged MapFind materials by geographic locationLensesCreate your own visualizationsWhat We LearnedLearn how multivocal spatial history changed how we approach our researchAboutFind information about contributors and advisory board members, citing this site, image permissions and licensing, and site documentationTroubleshootingA guide to known issuesAcknowledgmentsThank youDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fThis project was made possible in part by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
"Chinese shops smashed by Koreans, 1931-07-03"
12020-04-30T18:06:56-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f352Photograph of Chinese shops smashed by Koreans in Pyongyang in response to the Wanpaoshan Incident. Hinode shinbunsha, ed., Manshū kenkoku to Manshū, Shanhai Daijihenshi_ (May 1932) | Wikimedia Commons.plain2020-10-05T01:07:31-04:00P'yŏngyang (Korea)Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_shops_smashed_by_Koreans_in_Pyongyang.jpg1931-07Hinode shinbunshaPublic domain.David R. AmbarasManchuria (China)--Social conditions--1931-1945; Manchuria (China)--Social conditions--20th century; Manchuria (China)--Race relations--History; Manchuria (China)--Relations--Japan.image/jpegDRA-0029Still ImageKandra Polatis4decfc04157f6073c75cc53dcab9d25e87c02133
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12020-04-30T18:05:24-04:00Wartime Departures, 1931-458Departure of Fuqing peddlers and their Japanese wives/children to Fuqing during the Fifteen Year War, 1931-1945.plain2021-10-12T10:46:39-04:0041.80569, 123.4314744.14411, 125.35348ShenyangChangchun1931-1945David R. Ambaras
As the Japanese economy soured in the late 1920s, many peddlers, as well as other Chinese immigrants, found it difficult to survive in Japan and began to depart for their home villages, accompanied by their wives and children. (Remittances from Japan to China also dropped dramatically, thus increasing the pressure on families in Fujian.) The impetus to leave grew even stronger after the Manchurian Incident of September 1931, as Japanese customers stopped buying from Chinese peddlers and the latter and their families suffered insults and other forms of hostility, including from resident Koreans angered by Chinese attacks on their compatriots in Manchuria in the Wanpaoshan Incident.
By December 15, 1931, 1,758 peddlers were reported to have exited Japan, and this exodus continued in the following year. Hence, while officials worried about the unscrupulousness or criminality of Chinese immigrants, the fall-out from one of the most blatantly illegal acts of Japanese imperialism contributed greatly to the movement of Japanese women into the Fujianese interior. And Chinese anger over the Manchurian Incident would of course complicate both these women’s experiences in China and consular efforts to contact them once they were there.
The number of Japanese migrants to Fuqing appears to have increased after 1937, as the outbreak of the second Sino-Japanese War and then the larger Asia-Pacific War led many Chinese to evacuate from Japan with their families. While many of those who retained documentation of their Japanese nationality were able to return to Japan after the war, many others remained in Fuqing for decades.
Even as the Japanese government sought to use resident overseas Chinese to build images of “Sino-Japanese Amity” and lend legitimacy to collaborationist regimes on the mainland (Han 2013), Chinese who remained in Japan during the war were subject to increasing regulations and suspicions. Fuqing peddlers suffered economic hardships due to new prohibitions on their movement across prefectural boundaries, and many were arrested for such violations. In Kobe, special higher police arrested and tortured thirteen Fuqing peddlers as suspected enemy spies from 1944 to 1945. Two men died in police custody, and four other died shortly after being released. Those who survived their wartime imprisonment returned to China after Japan's defeat (Ryonichi Fukken Dōkyō Konshinkai hanseiki no ayumi Henshū Iinkai Jimukyoku 2013, 492-500).