As for energy, we can consider the transformations of given material environments as a core element of place-making and spatialization. The creation of an urban “second nature” that subsumes nature to capitalism constitutes one critical part of the modern history with which we are engaging, as does the constitutive power of networks to both cohere and “splinter” places (Graham and Marvin 2002; Hirsch 2016). Yet energy flows, in the form of ocean currents, northern continental winters, coal deposits or camphor forests, etc., conditioned and were subjected to human interactions and social power structures. Ideas of the tropics informed not only Japanese colonialist projects but a global set of exploitative and disciplinary enterprises with which they articulated (Tomiyama 1995; Tierney 2010). Manipulation of air flows also helped bring the empire to its collapse by magnifying the destructive power of American fire bombings in Tokyo (and elsewhere), while the heat these events produced turned riverine circuits, long part of the world of urban circulations, into boiling portals to the world beyond (e.g., Sumida Local Culture Resource Center 2011).
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- Cresswell, “Towards a Politics of Mobility”
- Tomiyama Ichiro, “Colonialism and the Sciences of the Tropical Zone"
- Hirsh, Airport Urbanism
- Graham and Marvin, Splintering Urbanism
- Massey, “A Global Sense of Place”
- Sumida Local Culture Resource Center, “That Unforgettable Day"
- Tierney, Tropics of Savagery