Bodies and StructuresMain MenuWhat We're DoingOverview essayHow to Use This SiteAn orientationModulesList of modulesTag MapConceptual indexComplete Grid VisualizationGrid Visualization of Bodies and StructuresGeotagged MapGeographic IndexWhat We LearnedContributors share what they learned through the Bodies and Structures process.ReferencesReferences tag for all modules and essayContributorsContributor BiosAcknowledgementsAcknowledgementsContact usContact information pageLicensing and ImagesThe original content of this site is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND International 4.0 License.David Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f This publication is hosted on resources provided by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences IT department at NC State University.
12018-08-06T21:54:22-04:00Shellen Wu768cb3a87e44745ca18d50f57d38cb14bed89fba22Xue Bao 學報 1, no. 8 (1908): 14. (Published in Shanghai.)plain2018-12-03T08:29:40-05:001908Public domain.Shellen X. Wuimage/pngStill ImageKate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f
By the end of the nineteenth century, Japan had fully turned away from the imperial Chinese example to embrace a Western-styled imperialism, with the science and technology of mapping and surveying as the foundational tools of empire. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) brought forth far stronger condemnations and recrimination against the stagnation of Chinese tradition. At the same time, Japan became the source of assorted geographical and agricultural texts, which flooded into turn-of-the century China.
Late Qing officials were particularly interested in agricultural science. In the 1900s, the last decade of the dynasty, the Qing state attempted to completely reform its educational and governmental structure. As part these reforms, the Qing established a Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce and opened agricultural experimental stations. Much of the agronomic knowledge during this period came mainly from Japan and the United States. In 1906, the Ministry opened the first agricultural experiment station on 70 hectares of land outside of the Xizhi Gate, near the northwest corner of Beijing’s city walls (and now part of the Beijing Zoo). Around the same time period, provincial officials established agricultural experiment stations in all the provinces, with some provinces, like Guangdong Province, which established seven stations by 1911, opening multiple stations, as well as operating additional sericulture and forestry stations. Agricultural stations survived the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911. More important than the actual physical stations, the language of scientific agriculture and experimental stations proliferated in the subsequent decades and into the People’s Republic of China after its founding in 1949.