Bodies and StructuresMain MenuWhat We're DoingOverview essayHow to Use This SiteAn orientationModulesList of modulesTag MapConceptual indexComplete Grid VisualizationGrid Visualization of Bodies and StructuresGeotagged MapGeographic IndexWhat We LearnedContributors share what they learned through the Bodies and Structures process.ReferencesReferences tag for all modules and essayContributorsContributor BiosAcknowledgementsAcknowledgementsContact usContact information pageLicensing and ImagesThe original content of this site is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND International 4.0 License.David Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f This publication is hosted on resources provided by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences IT department at NC State University.
Map of a geological survey of Xing An
12018-08-06T11:13:32-04:00Shellen Wu768cb3a87e44745ca18d50f57d38cb14bed89fba23Yutaka Kurimoto, Kōan tonkonku jijō (Dairen: Minami Manshū Tetsudō Kabushiki Kaisha, 1929). A Japanese survey of Xing An comissioned by the South Manchuria Railway Company.plain2018-11-30T14:34:26-05:00Public domain.Shellen X. WuKate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f
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12018-04-23T13:40:35-04:00Surveying Empire9Geological Surveys and the Vertical Frontierplain2018-11-30T14:33:32-05:00Shellen Wu
Geological surveys bolstered Han Chinese claims to resources in frontier areas from the late Qing through the Republican period and the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949. Both Japanese and Chinese geologists raced to survey contested territories. Geology quickly became the first science formally endorsed by the new Republic. The Geological Survey of China was the new Chinese republic's first scientific institution and began publishing a journal on geological research in 1919.
To fuel plans to develop Xing An, survey teams paid careful attention to potential coal and other valuable minerals in the region. In a grandiose report full of ambitious but vaguely defined plans for the construction of transportation networks, schools, and the creation of a civil administration, the discussion on the development of logging and mining delved into specific details, including information on the locations of coal seams and valuable mineral deposits. Earlier in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Russian geologists and mining engineers had surveyed the region for gold; the Chinese officers brought their own experts. Subsequently, the Japanese-controlled South Manchuria Railroad also showed an interest in developing mining enterprises in the region.