Bodies and StructuresMain MenuWhat We're DoingOverview essayHow to Use This SiteAn orientationModulesList of modulesTag MapConceptual indexComplete Grid VisualizationGrid Visualization of Bodies and StructuresGeotagged MapGeographic IndexWhat We LearnedContributors share what they learned through the Bodies and Structures process.ReferencesReferences tag for all modules and essayContributorsContributor BiosAcknowledgementsAcknowledgementsContact usContact information pageLicensing and ImagesThe original content of this site is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND International 4.0 License.Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fDavid Ambaras1337d6b66b25164b57abc529e56445d238145277 This publication is hosted on resources provided by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences IT department at NC State University.
The History of Tunken
12018-04-23T13:40:20-04:00CHASS Web Resources398fc684681798c72f46b5d25a298734565e6eb826How the term became a ubiquitous part of the Chinese discourse of empireplain2018-08-28T17:36:45-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fBy the 1930s, the Japanese colonial empire had expanded from Hokkaido to Taiwan, Korea, and Northeast China. Japan’s continental ambitions entered a new phase with Manchuria, where the colonial administration established collective farms at the same time that the Japanese home government promoted the region as an industrial and modern Eden. Through translations beginning in the late nineteenth century, China adopted a number of neologisms coined in Japan. However, Chinese writers rarely ever referred to Han colonization efforts as zhimin 殖民. Instead, Chinese writers almost exclusively used an update amalgam of the classical Chinese terms for military settlement and land reclamation, tunken 屯墾. Borrowing from the far older terms tuntian and kaiken, tunken did not come into use until the 18th century, and then only sparingly, appearing all of two times in the 18th century Qing compilation of the Ming histories. The term tunken started to appear again in the Qing documents from the late nineteenth century, used in the context of the Northeast, but came widely into vogue only from the 1920s. The etymology of the term strongly suggests that tunken was popularized as a response to China’s perceived besiegement from imperialist powers. For more on the officers, like Zou Zuohua, who headed the tunken effort in Xing An, continue on to the discussion of the colonizers.
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12018-04-23T13:40:22-04:00CHASS Web Resources398fc684681798c72f46b5d25a298734565e6eb8The Making of a Contested TerritoryShellen Wu8What defines a place?plain2018-09-03T22:53:02-04:00Shellen WuShellen Wu768cb3a87e44745ca18d50f57d38cb14bed89fba
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12018-04-23T13:40:20-04:00CHASS Web Resources398fc684681798c72f46b5d25a298734565e6eb8Sites of Conflict or CoercionKate McDonald2Sites of Conflict or Coercion (Imaginative Geographies)plain2018-08-28T18:43:20-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f
12018-08-28T17:21:49-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5fDiscourses of DevelopmentKate McDonald1Discourses of Development (Imaginative Geographies)plain2018-08-28T17:21:49-04:00Kate McDonald306bb1134bc892ab2ada669bed7aecb100ef7d5f
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12018-07-08T07:02:14-04:00Young, Total Empire1Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of the Wartime Imperialismplain2018-07-08T07:02:14-04:00
12018-08-06T13:54:19-04:00The History of Tunken1From Zou Zuohua, Tunken qianshuo (Xing An: Xing An Tunken gongshu, 1928).media/November1928speech.pngplain2018-08-06T13:54:19-04:00